High fructose syrup (HFS, or HFCS for high fructose corn syrup) in specified concentrations has a similar caloric value and sweetness to table sugar. As an effective natural sweetener it is popular in the soft drinks and confectionery industry.
High DE glucose syrup, which is the basis for HFS production, is made from common starch plants such as corn, wheat, rice and cassava.
Vogelbusch process for fructose production
Some of the glucose contained in high glucose syrup is converted to fructose and sold as HFS-42 or it is enriched to specified concentrations, such as HFS-55 and higher.
The feedstock, high glucose syrup, is a clear substrate obtained from starch with a DE of 96 or higher (see glucose) which is already filtered, deashed and evaporated to desired concentration for conversion.
A portion of the glucose contained in the syrup is converted into fructose by an enzymatic conversion step called isomerization.
To extend the lifetime of the enzymes, the ion content of the substrate is adjusted by addition of specific salts. The syrup then passes through columns that are filled with the immobilized enzyme isomerase, creating a glucose-fructose syrup also known as isoglucose, with a concentration of approximately 42% fructose in dry matter substance.
For the production of high purity fructose products (HFS-98, crystalline fructose) isomerization can be designed for contents up to 48% fructose in dry matter substance.
The isoglucose syrup undergoes a purification step including ion exchange and decolorization (for instance by activated carbon treatment).
In a continuous chromatographic separation process, the isoglucose syrup is separated in a fructose-rich (extract with a purity of typically 90%) and a glucose-rich (raffinate) fraction.
While the raffinate is recycled to the isomerization process, the extract is blended with isoglucose syrup to reach the desired content of 55% fructose. After polishing of the solution in a mixed bed ion exchanger the product is finally concentrated to 77% DS by multi-effect evaporation and marketed as HFS-55.
Alternatively isoglucose syrup can be concentrated by evaporation to 71% DMS and marketed as HFS-42.
Both HFS-42 and HFS-55 are commonly used in food, beverage and confectionery applications as in manufacturing the liquid product is easier to handle compared to crystalline sugar.
The extract from chromatographic separation can be marketed directly or processed further.
Typical applications are
HFS is only one of many compounds in the starch sweetener and fermentation business.
Besides starch milk and sweeteners, grain processing facilities additionally can include the production of a whole range of valuable products and by-products such as
We understand the interaction among substrate, bioconversion, recovery and purification and can assist you in developing your complete grain processing project, from raw material selection through to the final product range. Contact us for:
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All figures given here are typical and can vary depending on plant configuration and equipment.
The biotechnological complex put up by JSC «Biotech Rosva» uses wheat as a feedstock to produce speciality goods such as starch, gluten and various starch sugars, which are intended as ingredients for the food industry. A by-product will be used as animal feed. VOGELBUSCH is responsible for the planning and delivery...
Find out more about the processes used in HFS production:
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Glucose syrups are produced in a two stage enzymatic process containing mainly glucose and higher sugars, but virtually no fructose. Fructose syrups are produced by an enzymatic conversion of the glucose.
A production facility for HFS-55 can alternatively produce high DE glucose syrup, HFS-42 and basically also HFS-90 and HFS-98.
Manufacturing of the two last is limited by the chromatographic enrichment unit, which in this case can reach only part of the nominal capacity: up to 45% of initial raw material need to be extracted to gain a stream mainly containing glucose and higher sugars to yield HFS-90 and HFS-98.
The recommended minimum economic capacity is in the range of 30 000 tpa of HFS-55.
Our plants are designed to produce HFS according to the ISBT standard (www.bevtech.org) which incorporates the quality requirements of the biggest beverage producers.
As in most cases glucose plants are connected to grain processing facilities, normally they are run with only one type of feedstock in form of the available starch milk. However, plants can also be designed to run on dry starch and in such case different types of native starch (e.g. wheat, corn, tapioca) can be processed with only minor adjustments of process parameter.
Decisive factors for the location of the HFS plant are the same as for grain processing:
The most suitable location is therefore next to a grain processing facility.
A small HFS plant excluding utilities can be placed in a building of approximately 80m x 36m x 18m (L x W x H). Additionally, space for product storage according to ruling logistics has to be foreseen.
Capital expenditure always depends on plant capacity and configuration as well as local conditions. Costs for the process plant (excluding building, auxiliaries, infrastructure) are from euro 8 million upwards.
This figure is for general reference only since each project has its own particularities that need consideration.
With permits on hand the engineering, delivery of equipment and construction takes 16 - 20 months depending on capacity and complexity of the plant.
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