Fruit - or wine - vinegar is based on wine fermented from fruit such as grapes, apples, dates and many others. It is used in food processing and in cooking for salad dressings, vegetable pickling and sauces.
Vogelbusch process for the production of vinegar from fruit wine
Acetic acid bacteria convert ethanol into vinegar. After a maturing period the vinegar is clarified in a fining and filtration process.
Preparation of fruit wine as vinegar substrate
The fruit is washed, peeled and put into the fruit milling cutter where it is cut to the optimum particle size according to the kind of fruit.
The resulting fruit juice is put into fermenters, where the alcoholic fermentation into fruit wine takes place under addition of enzymes (for pectine reduction) and yeast. After separation of the yeast and solids, the fruit wine is ready for mash preparation.
The fermentation substrate (wine) must have an ethanol content in the range of 5 to around 15 %. It is mixed with raw vinegar containing acetic acid bacteria in the injection tank. Nutrients and some vinegar are blended in the nutrient vessel, then added to the injection tank and mixed to dilute.
This mash preparation is carried out in batches once or twice a week in one of the injection tanks while the other is used as feed tank for the fermentation.
The fermentation is operated semi-continuous.
The alcoholic mash is aerated in the fermentation tank using our proprietary IP-8 aeration system. The fermentation cycle is finished when the vinegar concentration reaches its maximum and the alcohol content decreases to around 0.3 vol%. Then about a third of the fermenter content is pumped into the ejection tank.
The fermenter is refilled with fresh mash from the injection tank for the next fermentation batch. A batch cycle lasts about a day, but is dependent on the alcohol content of the raw material.
Nutrients are viable for the optimal growth of acetic acid bacteria. The combination of nutrients is selected according to the type of raw material used, to improve its nutritive value and thus the yield.
For fruit wine, di-ammonium phosphate and BREMOFERM®, a proprietary formulation developed by Vogelbusch, which is rich in vitamins, minerals and other nutritive substances, are added to the mash.
The fresh (raw) vinegar discharged from the fermenter is allowed to mature in the ejection tanks for several weeks. In the course of maturing impurities which cause turbidity (such as bacteria, coagulated proteins, precipitated salts) settle to the bottom of the tanks.
If required, the clarifying of the raw vinegar can be advanced with fining agents in specially equipped fining tanks. To remove any remaining solids, the mature vinegar passes through a filter module. Before bottling or bulk filling, it is finally filtered over a de-germination filter and diluted to the desired concentration with process water.
|Production capacity (10% vinegar)||l/d||4,000||8,000||15,000||30,000|
|Cooling water connection load 24°C||m³/h||20||40||80||160|
|Average required area||m²||300||400||600||800|
|Minimum required building height||m||7.6||7.7||9.5||10.5|
The fully automated vinegar fermentation of Vogelbusch uses a sensor-equipped measurement system for online detection of alcohol in the fermenting mash.
The alcohol concentration is constantly measured during the fermentation process. As soon as the adjusted residual alcohol content is reached, the raw vinegar is automatically ejected and the fermenter is refilled with fresh mash.
An emergency power supply with automatic start ensures interruption-free fermentation in case of power failure.
Fermentation is an exothermal process and cooling is essential. To conduct away the heat, cooling water with 24°C at a recycle temperature of 27°C is decisive for vinegar production.
Vogelbusch proprietary design includes a finely balanced cooling coil system installed inside the fermenter (image: inner view of a fermenter).
Our services are tailored to your requirements with design and supply packages starting from key components (fermenter along with aerator and the process control system) up to EPC solutions for the complete process line, including measuring & control and laboratory equipment.
Our experts are also available to upgrade or revamp existing plants and to integrate vinegar units into other manufacturing facilities, for instance alcohol production.
All figures given here are typical and can vary depending on plant configuration and equipment.
|Consumption for 10,000 l vinegar (10 %)|
|Cooling water 23/27°C||m³||840|
Mendes Gonçalves, a well known Portuguese producer of vinegar and condiments ordered a vinegar fermenter from Vogelbusch. The new fermenter raised production capacity in Golegã, north of Lisbon by 15,000 litres to some 27,000 litres per day. We supplied the fermenter including IP-8 self priming aeration and process equipment such as...
Supply of a vinegar fermenter type 1200 including IP-8 self priming aeration with a daily capacity of 15,000 liter (10%) for processing pure ethanol and grape and apple wine. The unit, originally set up for Gsonek in 1998 in Laa an der Thaya (Lower Austria), was later acquired by Mautner Markhof and...
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We offer standard plant sizes starting with a daily capacity of 4,000 liter 10% vinegar.
Capital expenditure always depends on plant capacity and configuration as well as local conditions. Costs for the complete process plant (excluding building, auxiliaries, infrastructure) are from euro 1 million upwards.
This figure is for general reference only since each project has its own particularities that need consideration.
The final concentration depends on the initial alcohol content of the raw material. Typical product concentrations are between 5 and 14% acetic acid. For domestic use, the vinegar is diluted to a concentration of 5%.
Our process calculations always refer to a standard concentration of 10%.
Our minimum design package includes the supply of the key components, which is the fermenter along with aerator, cooling coil and process control system.
Full service covers the process design and supply of the complete process line, including measuring & control and laboratory equipment.
The dimensions and internals of the Vogelbusch fermenter are designed to conform with the IP-8 aeration. As long as the dimensions of an existing fermenter or tank are close to the Vogelbusch fermenter a reconstruction is possible.
Owing to the temperature- and oxygen-sensitive nature of the process it is essential to ensure continuous supply of electricity. An emergency power supply unit is necessary for interruption-free operation of the aeration, the cooling aggregate, the cooling water regulation and pump as well as the feed and discharge automation.
For reproduction vinegar bacteria need a complex blend of vitamins, minerals and other nutritive substances. Additional to the naturally present ingredients of fruit wine supplementary nutrients promote the growth of the bacteria and thus the yield of the process.
Complete our design questionnaire (check Links & Downloads section above) and send it back to us to get a professional opinion on your project.